An alibi means that a defendant was at a place at the time of an offense where he or she could not have participated in the offense. Although an alibi defense is not an affirmative defense, it does involve the negation of an element of the prosecution’s case against a defendant. The defendant does not have the burden of proving his or her alibi. The prosecution has the burden of proving that the defendant committed the offense. The alibi defense contradicts the allegations of an indictment or an information against the defendant and casts doubt about whether the prosecution has met its burden of proof.
A person commits the offense of bribery when he or she intentionally or knowingly offers to another person or solicits or accepts from another person any benefit in consideration of his or her decision, vote, or exercise of discretion as a public servant, a political party official, or a voter.
Criminal forfeiture actions are generally thought of as a quasi-criminal matter. Criminal forfeiture involves the literal forfeiture of the defendant’s personal or real property. Probable cause must be shown to support the seizure of property subject to forfeiture.
The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (MSHA) provides for enforcement of by way of civil penalties, criminal penalties, or administrative enforcement methods. MSHA was enacted to protect mining workers. When a violation of the MSHA is claimed, an investigation is conducted regarding the allegations of the violation. If a criminal division determines that a case referred to it warrants prosecution, the case will be referred to the office of the United States Attorney.
Although offenses involving motor vehicles thefts are usually prosecuted by state and local law enforcement authorities, the increased number of such offenses and the increased use of violence in connection with the offenses caused Congress to enact a federal carjacking statute. Congress also directed the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Attorneys’ offices to cooperate with state and local authorities in the investigation of such offenses and to prosecute some offenses in federal court.